Seeking clarity when it comes to the key compliance terms? Use this guide to gain an understanding of the most critical terms you need to know.
Affiliate: Any company that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another company. A company is under common control with another company if the same company directly or indirectly controls both companies. A bank subsidiary is controlled by the bank and is, therefore, an affiliate.
Aggregate Lending: The number of loans originated and purchased by all reporting lenders in specified income categories as a percentage of the aggregate number of loans originated and purchased by all reporting lenders in the MA/AA.
Branch: A staffed banking facility authorized as a branch, whether shared or unshared, including, for example, a mini-branch in a grocery store or a branch operated in conjunction with any other local business or nonprofit organization. The term “branch” only includes a “domestic branch as that term is defined in Section 3(o) of the FDIA (12 U.S.C. 1813 (o)).
Census Tract (CT): A small subdivision of metropolitan and other densely populated counties. CT boundaries do not cross county lines; however, they may cross the boundaries of MAs. CTs usually have between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, and their physical size varies widely depending on population density. CTs are designed to be homogeneous with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions to allow for statistical comparisons.
Community Development: Affordable housing (including multifamily rental housing) for low- or moderate-income (LMI) individuals; community services targeted to LMI individuals; activities that promote economic development by financing businesses or farms that meet the size eligibility standards of the Small Business Administration’s Development Company or Small Business Investment Company programs (13 CFR 121.301) or have gross annual revenues of $1 million or less; or activities that revitalize or stabilize LMI geographies.
Effective September 1, 2005, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Fed), the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) have adopted the following additional language as part of the revitalize or stabilize definition of community development. Activities that revitalize or stabilize:
1. LMI income geographies;
2. Designated disaster areas; or 3. Distressed or underserved nonmetropolitan middle-income geographies designated by the Fed, FDIC, and OCC, based on:
a. Rates of poverty, unemployment, and population loss; or
b. Population size, density, and dispersion. Activities that revitalize and stabilize geographies designated based on population size, density, and dispersion if they help to meet essential community needs, including needs of LMI individuals.
Community Development Loan: This refers to a loan that has as its primary purpose community development, and, except in the case of a wholesale or limited-purpose bank has not had the following events occur: The loan has not been reported or collected by the bank or an affiliate for consideration in the Bank’s assessment as a home mortgage, small business, small farm, or consumer loan, unless it is a multifamily dwelling loan (as described in Appendix A to Part 203 of this title); and benefits the Bank’s assessment area or a broader statewide or regional area that includes the Bank’s assessment area.
Community Development Service: A community development service has as its primary purpose community development and is related to the provision of financial services. A community development service may not additionally have been considered in the evaluation of the Bank’s retail banking services.
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA): The statute that requires the OCC to evaluate a bank’s record of meeting the credit needs of its local community, consistent with the safe and sound operation of the bank, and to take this record into account when evaluating certain corporate applications filed by the bank.
Consumer Loan(s): A loan(s) to one or more individuals for household, family, or other personal expenditures. A consumer loan does not include a home mortgage, small business, or small farm loan. This definition includes the following categories: motor vehicle loans, credit card loans, home equity loans, other secured consumer loans, and other unsecured consumer loans.
Family: Includes a householder and one or more other persons living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. The number of family households always equals the number of families; however, a family household may also include non-relatives living with the family. Families are classified by type as either a married-couple family or other family, which is further classified into ‘male householder’ (a family with a male householder’ and no wife present) or ‘female householder’ (a family with a female householder and no husband present).
Full Review: Performance under the Lending, Investment, and Service Tests is analyzed considering performance context, quantitative factors (e.g., geographic distribution, borrower distribution, and total number and dollar amount of investments), and qualitative factors (e.g., innovativeness, complexity, and responsiveness).
Geography: A CT delineated by the United States Bureau of the Census in the most recent decennial census.
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA): The statute that requires certain mortgage lenders that do business or have banking offices in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) to file annual summary reports of their mortgage lending activity. The reports include such data as the race, gender, and the income of applications, the amount of loan requested, and the disposition of the application (e.g., approved, denied, and withdrawn). Beginning in 2004, the reports also include additional data on loan pricing, the lien status of the collateral, any requests for pre-approval and loans for manufactured housing.
Home Mortgage Loans: Such loans include home purchase, home improvement and refinancings, as defined in the HMDA regulation. These include loans for multifamily (five or more families) dwellings, manufactured housing, and one-to-four family dwellings other than manufactured housing.
Household: Includes all persons occupying a housing unit. Persons not living in households are classified as living in group quarters. In 100% tabulations, the count of households always equals the count of occupied housing units.
Limited Review: Performance under the Lending, Investment, and Service Tests is analyzed using only quantitative factors (e.g., geographic distribution, borrower distribution, total number and dollar amount of investments, and branch distribution).
Low-Income: Individual income that is less than 50% of the area median income, or a median family income (MFI) that is less than 50%, in the case of a geography.
Market Share: The number of loans originated and purchased by the institution as a percentage of the aggregate number of loans originated and purchased by all reporting lenders in the MA/AA.
Median Family Income (MFI): The median income determined by the U.S. Census Bureau every ten years and used to determine the income level category of geographies. Also, the median income determined by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) annually that is used to determine the income level category of individuals. For any given area, the median is the point at which half of the families have income above it and half below.
Metropolitan Area (MA): Any MSA or metropolitan division, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and any other area designated as such by the appropriate federal financial supervisory agency.
Metropolitan Division: As defined by the OMB, a county or group of counties within an MSA that contains a population of at least 2.5 million. A Metropolitan Division consists of one or more counties that represent an employment center or centers, plus adjacent counties associated with the main county or counties through commuting ties.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA): An area, defined by the OMB, as having at least one urbanized area that has a population of at least 50,000. The MSA comprises the central county or counties, plus adjacent outlying counties having a high degree of social and economic integration with the central county as measured through commuting.
Middle-Income: Individual income that is at least 80% and less than 120% of the area median income or an MFI that is at least 80% and less than 120% in the case of a geography.
Moderate-Income: Individual income that is at least 50% and less than 80% of the area median income, or an MFI that is at least 50% and less than 80%, in the case of a geography.
Multifamily: Refers to a residential structure that contains five or more units.
Owner-Occupied Units: Includes units occupied by the owner or co-owner, even if the unit has not been fully paid for or is mortgaged.
Poverty Status: Poverty thresholds are revised annually to allow for changes in the cost of living as reflected by the Consumer Price Index. The average threshold for a family of 4 persons was $12,674 in 1989.
Qualified Investment: A qualified investment is defined as any lawful investment, deposit, membership share, or grant that has as its primary purpose community development.
Small Loan(s) to Business(es): A loan included in ‘Loans to Small Businesses’ as defined in the Consolidated Report of Condition and Income (Call Report) and the Thrift Financial Reporting (TFR) instructions. These loans have original amounts of $1 million or less and typically are either secured by nonfarm or nonresidential real estate or are classified as commercial and industrial loans.
Small Loan(s) to Farm(s): A loan included in ‘Loans to Small Farms’ as defined in the instructions for preparation of the Call Report. These loans have original amounts of $500,000 or less and are either secured by farmland, or are classified as loans to finance agricultural production and other loans to farmers.
Tier 1 Capital: The total of common shareholders’ equity, perpetual preferred shareholders’ equity with non-cumulative dividends, retained earnings and minority interests in the equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries.
Upper Income: Individual income that is at least 120% of the area median income, or an MFI that is at least 120%, in the case of a geography.